Archive | August, 2018

Election of Church Leaders D.18.08.17

16 Aug

Beginning in 1059 popes were elected only by leaders of the Church, called cardinals. Not by powerful secular leaders.
Pope Gregory the VII, who served from 1073 to 1085, openly claimed that the pope was superior to all secular authority just as the spirit was superior to the body.
Kings and princes, in Gregory’s view, should govern their own realms but ultimately submit to the will of the Pope. Gregory also began to strictly enforce notions of clerical chastity. Henceforth all those who took holy orders would take a vow of chastity to abstain from all sexual activity.
In one hand, this reflected a general Christian distrust of sexuality. But equally importantly, it weakened family allegiances of clerical officials. It ensured that bishops, priests, monks, and nuns would have no children to inherit their wealth. That wealth would pass naturally back to the Church.
I think in all, these rules created new problems and hence the church faced situations of sexual abuse and massive financial accumulations.
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The Monastery in France D.18.08.16

15 Aug

Beginning with the foundation of the great monastery in France in 910 CE, the papacy took direct control of the monastic movement.
Increasingly abbots reported directly to the pope, rather than to local lords or princes. This was the beginning of a major push to minimize the influence of powerful rulers in the internal affairs of the Church.
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The Roman Catholic Church D.18.08.15

14 Aug

In 1054, the Church broke into two factions. The Roman Catholic Church, headed by the pope in Rome, and the Eastern Orthodox Church, based in Constantinople and Byzantium.
This division persists to this day. During the High Middle Ages, the papacy forcefully reestablished its position as an independent spiritual power and as a temperate authority. Ruling the papal states in Central Italy.
The pope centralized the government to the church and increasingly asserted authority in secular affairs.
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The Early Power of the Pope D.18.08.14

13 Aug

After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the pope was the Supreme Leader of the church in the West.
The church quickly became the dominant institution in Western Europe in the 6th century. Pope Gregory The Great, established the authority of the office of the pope. Revising the development of monasteries and putting the papal estates on a sound financial footing.
He promoted new styles of church music. Music we call Gregorian chant, in his honor. In the years following Gregory’s death, the papacy became less influential, and at times the office was almost entirely controlled by external political forces, from powerful Roman families to German and French princes.
The popes tried throughout this period, without success, to assert their authority over clergy in the Byzantine empire.
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The Papacy and the Ages D.18.08.13

12 Aug

The High Middle Ages was the high point of the power of the papacy. The Catholic Church was the one ancient institution to survive and thrive following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.
The office of the pope developed and changed over time. In the early years of the Church, before the empire fell, the pope was merely the Bishop of Rome.
This was a prestigious position in part because of Rome’s role as the capital of the Roman empire and in part because the Bishop of Rome was seen as the heir of St. Peter, who Christ charged in the Gospels with founding his church.
The Bishop of Jerusalem as well as bishops in other prominent cities such as Alexandria, had rival claims at that time to lead the Church.
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Pilgrimage Migration D.18.08.12

11 Aug

It has to be said, pilgrimages encouraged travel. It cannot be ignored that the greatest travellers of the Medieval period were probably Muslim people.
This is partly because, pilgrimage played an even greater role in Muslim religious life than it did in Christian life. Christians went on pilgrimages. But they weren’t commanded by their religion to necessarily go on a pilgrimage as a core belief and a core observant.
Not all Muslims could afford or organize a trip to Mecca during their life time. But many, many did, and during the Medieval period Muslim Pilgrims traveling to Mecca in a caravan. The travel to Mecca was enormously organized and structured.
Travel in the Muslim world was facilitated by educated, well off people, by shared religion, shared language among the elite.
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Ancient Travel and Exploration D.18.08.11

10 Aug

Ancient Sea Farers was boosted by romantic tales of exploration. From the scripts like Mandeville’s Travels which encourage a person like Christopher Columbus.
It is possible Columbus’s ideas of what he might find as he set off on his journeys that led him to the Caribbean, were influenced in great part by what Mandeville had described in his travels.
Mandeville’s Travels covered a lot of the same ground as Marco Polo. Mandeville claimed to have traveled to Egypt, Persia, India and China. But unlike Marco Polo, who keeps fairly closely to the real world, Mandeville says he went to the land of the Amazons, where the women rule, and the men work in the house.
The world of fiction or the world of fact – sea travel has opened doors to our modern world.
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